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38th World Congress on Heart Diseases, will be organized around the theme “Theme: Beyond the Beat: Finding Courage Against Heart Disease”

HEART CONGRESS 2024 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in HEART CONGRESS 2024

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The term Cardiovascular itself contains cardio (heart) and Vascular (blood vessels). It is a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. This disease has evolved substantially in the last few decades. When the Atherosclerosis clot (plaque) build-up inside the walls of arteries and prevent blood to flow through it in the required amount. This condition leads to the inadequate blood supply to the heart, brain, kidney, liver, and all organs of the body and gave birth to the several types of cardio vascular disease or in severity leads to death. Age, Sex, Genetics, High Blood Pressure, Tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, Obesity, Depression, etc are such risk factors that leads to the cause of this disease.

Types of Cardiovascular disease :

  • Arrhythmia ( abnormal rhythm of heart)
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Cardiomyopathy (Disease of heart muscle)
  • Myocardial Infraction (Heart Attack)
  • Coronary artery Disease (Narrowing of the areteries)
  • Stroke, etc.

Negligence to the minute cardiovascular disease can lead to heart attacks or strokes. lifestyle Modification and medications is the only key to manage cardiovascular disease. Earlier diagnosis can help with effective treatment.


Echocardiography is a diagnostic method that uses ultrasound waves to create an image of the heartmuscle. It is a tool which can be used in early detection of heart deformities like in size, shape, and movement of the heart's valves and chambers as well as the flow of blood through the heart.
Echocardiography plays an important role in paediatrics, diagnosing patients with valvular heart disease and other congenital abnormalities. An emerging branch is foetal echocardiography, which involves echocardiography of an unborn foetus.

Cardiac CT
Cardiac Computed Tomography is a Scanning method which uses many X-Rays from the different angles to construct image of heart using computed scanner.
With the help of this technique cardiologist get high resolution scan of the heart in a certain time with  3-dimensional  heart structure, valves, arteries, aorta and more.
It is used to evaluate cause of chest pain, to check heart arteries for atherosclerosis clot, to assess the heart valves, etc.

Cardiac MRI:
Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging is a method of Scanning of your heart in which radio waves and magnets create images without anything you can see or feel going into your body. By this method, one can see the parts of your heart including chambers, valves and muscles with their working conditions. This method is also provides the motion of blood inside the heart.
The development of cardiac MRI is an active field of research and continues to see a rapid expansion of new and emerging techniques.

Heart Failure:
It is a Chronic condition in which heart is not capable to pump blood well enough to meets the body’s needs for blood and oxygen. 

Human body depends on the heart’s pumping action to deliver oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood to the body’s cells. When the cells are nourished properly, the body can function normally. With heart failure, the weakened heart can’t supply the cells with enough blood. These results in fatigue and shortness of breath and some people have coughing. Everyday activities such as walking, climbing can become very difficult.

  • Shortness of breath.
  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain with swelling ankles.
  • palpitation
  • A dry, hacking Cough
  • A full bloated or hard stomach
  • Loss of apetite
  • Nausea

Prevention: Some factors like Age, family history or race are not in hand to control but by changing the lifestyle to give yourself the best chance of preventing heart failure. Which includes Staying at healthy weight, eating food that is good to the heart, Stress management, regular exercise, by reducing alcohol consumption, etc.

Myocardial Infraction:
Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to tissue death (infarction) of the heart muscle (myocardium) caused by ischaemia, the lack of oxygen delivery to myocardial tissue. It is a type of acute coronary syndrome, which describes a sudden or short-term change in symptoms related to blood flow to the heart. It is also known as heart attack.

Symptoms include tightness or pain in the chest, neck, back or arm as well as fatigue, lightheadness, abnormal heartbeat and anxiety.

It is a study that related to the connection and development of nervous system and the heart which is also called as neuroradiology. The effects of stress on the heart are studied in terms of the heart's interactions with both the peripheral nervous system and the central nervous system. Clinical conditions in neurocardiology includes hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy, cerebral embolism, epilepsy, encephalopathy, etc.

It is the science of cardiovascular drug which includes their origin, composition, Pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use, and toxicology. It also includes the study of the properties and reactions of Cardiovascular drugs especially with relation to their therapeutic value.

Cardiovascular system is the transportation system of body which supplies energy to all the organ and tissues by delivering nutrients through the blood. When any cardiovascular disease or disorder happens, it leads to the starvation of organ and tissues as inadequate supply of blood.

Drugs which is used to treat the cardiovascular diseases are:

  1. Anti-anginals- Organic nitrates, Calcium Channel blocker
  2. Anti-arrhythmics-  Quinidines, Procainamides
  3. Anti-hypertensives- ACE Inhibitors: Captopril
  4. Anti-coagulants- Heparin
  5. Anti-hyperlipidemic agents- Vitorin, Simcor
  6. Hypo-glycemic agents- Biguanides: Metformin, Sulfonylureas: Glimierides
  7.  Anti-thyroid drugs and thyroid hormones.

It is an anatomical malformation of the heart or great vessels which occur during intrauterine development, irrespective of the age at presentation. The most common type of pediatric heart disease is congenital, meaning that children are born with it. The effect of this condition causes heart palpitation, shortness of breath, chest pain etc.

Congenital Cardiovascular disease is the most common heart disease It can be detected before birth, soon after birth or anytime throughout life. There are many different types of congenital heart defects. and can be broken down into common categories, such as: cyanotic congenital heart disease, ductal dependent congenital heart disease, critical congenital heart disease, and other acyanotic or less acute congenital heart defects. Symptoms and treatment depend on the type of defect and its severity. Minor defects may not require treatment. Others may require blood pressure lowering medications, heart devices, catheter procedures and surgery. Serious cases may require heart transplant. The problem can affect the heart walls, heart valves and the blood vessels.

Cardiac nursing refers to the care of the patient suffering from Cardiovascular diseases or any diseases that is related to heart condition. The nurses which involve in this patient care are also called as Cardiovascular Nurses. They plays a very important role in the diagnosis, treatment along with the prevention of the cardiovascular conditions by working with patients experiencing heart attacks, angina, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and other conditions.

Acute Cardiac Care: Acute Cardiac Care refers to the short term care provided to the patient having an acute cardiac symptoms, illness, while diagnosis, Injury or are recovering from surgery or in case of  emergency.

Chronic Cardiac Care: Chronic Cardiac care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term heart illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short-term or severe illness of brief duration. Without effective treatment chronic conditions may lead to disability or in severe conditions leads to death.

Hypertension is a condition in which the blood pressure is elevated than normal i.e more than 120/80 mmHg. It is a very serious medical condition that remarkably increases the risks of heart, brain, kidney, and other diseases. 

Obesity: It is a condition in which excessive abnormal fat gets accumulated in the body. A person having a Body mass index of more than 30.00 is considered obese. Excessive body weight increases the risk the chance of hypertension associated with conditions like stroke, heart disease, and end-stage organ damage, which are major causes of death and disability. It can be prevented by regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, eat a well-balanced diet, improving sleep routine, and reducing stress.
Causes of obesity include:

  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Genetic
  • Physiological influences
  • Unhealthy diet
  • Drugs like steroid hormones and Drugs used to treat psychiatric conditions
  • Pregnancy
  • Lack of sleep, etc


Arrhythmia is a heart condition in which the sequence of normal electrical impulses of the heart that coordinate heartbeats get changes. The rhythm might get either too fast called tachycardia or gets too slow card bradycardia. In short, we can describe arrhythmia as irregular heartbeats. It can be prevented by reducing high blood pressure, controlling cholesterol levels, losing excess weight, taking a heart-healthy diet, etc.

The drugs used in arrhythmia include
- Amiodarone
- Flecainide
- lidocaine
For Tachycardia: Beta-blockers- Acebutolol, Atenolol, Metoprolol, etc
For Bradycardia: Theophylline- Aminophylline,
Ventricular fibrillation: Atropine, Isoprenaline, etc

Electrophysiology: It is a branch of neuroscience associated with the studies of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues. This technique detects the activity of living neuron by investigating the molecular and cellular process that governs their signaling. The test an electrophysiologist performs includes
- Electrocardiograms (ECG or EKG)
- Echocardiograms
- Electrophysiology studies.

Electrophysiology is majorly used for the investigation and treatment of
- certain Arrhythmic conditions like Atrial fibrillation, bradycardia, tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia,etc
- Sudden cardiac arrest

Rapidly increasing maternal morbidity and death continue to be mostly attributed to cardiovascular disease. Whenever both the pregnant woman and the developing foetus are exposed to several possible difficulties, various physiological changes of gestation happen. Women who have pre-existing cardiac conditions, such as congenital abnormalities, angina pectoris, coronary artery disease and aortopathies, need to undergo multidisciplinary testing, counselling, and optimization before getting pregnant. They also need to be closely monitored and have their medication needs managed. Close monitoring is crucial for patients who developed cardiac conditions like congestive heart failure, preeclampsia, cardiomyopathy, coronary events, or arrhythmia while pregnant. The signs of a cardiac issue during pregnancy include- fatigue, chest pain, shortness of breath, fainting, difficulty breathing while sleeping. 

Cardio oncology is the branch of cardiology that deals with the early diagnosis, ongoing surveillance, and therapeutic management of cardiovascular conditions brought on by chemotherapeutic and radiotherapeutic side effects. Cardiovascular dysfunction, a major source of morbidity and mortality in the oncologic population, can be brought on by either cancer treatment method.

Nuclear Cardiology:
Nuclear cardiology is a branch of general cardiology that focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac problems using radioactive materials and imaging methods. Non-invasive methods are used in nuclear cardiology studies to visualise the magnitude and location of a heart attack as well as analyse myocardial blood flow and the heart's ability to pump blood. Close monitoring is crucial for patients who developed cardiac conditions like heart failure, preeclampsia, cardiomyopathy, coronary events, or arrhythmia while pregnant. The following list of popular nuclear cardiology methods includes:

  • Myocardial Perfusion Imaging
  • Evaluation of Cardiac Function with Radionuclide Ventriculography
  • Assessment of Myocardial Injury, Infarction, and Infection
  • Imaging of the Nervous System of the Heart
  • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)


A recent branch of cardiovascular medicine called molecular cardiology seeks to use molecular biology methods for the mechanistic analysis, detection, diagnosis, and therapy of cardiovascular illness. Its main objective is to identify novel pathways that affect cardiac hypertrophy, ageing, and metabolic disorders, paying close attention to how each discovery might be translated into fresh bedside methods and tactics.

Cellular cardiology: Heart failure is among the leading causes of death in the modern world. The study of the heart or circulatory system at the cellular level is known as cellular cardiology. In this molecular cardiology, the researchers found that the cells in various heart regions differed significantly from one another and that each part of the organ included a distinct group of cells, revealing various developmental origins and possibly varying responses to therapies. The molecular and cellular biology methods that are most frequently employed include:

  • Polymerase Chain Reaction,
  • Electrophoresis,
  • Restriction Digestion
  • Blotting
  • Cloning

The scientific study of lipids is known as lipidology. The group of organic molecules known as lipids includes fatty acids and their derivatives, which are soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water. A class of biological macromolecules known as lipids serves a wide range of purposes in the body. Lipids are important for creating cells and fat storage. However, a concentration or build-up of them might have negative health effects and result in major complications, such as cardiac illnesses like cardiovascular disease. Hyperlipidemia, or an excess of lipids in the blood, is the most prevalent disease.

Several lipid disorders are studies within which are lipidology, these include

  • Hypercholesterolaemia
  • Hyperglyceridaemia
  • Hypertriglyceridaemia
  • Hyperlipoproteinaemia
  • Hyperchylomicronaemia
  • Combined hyperlipidaemia
  • Familial hypercholesterolaemia
  • Diabetes mellitus

It is a field of medicine that focuses on identifying risk factors such excessive cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and other vascular risk factors and controlling them, when possible, in order to prevent and manage cardiovascular disease states. The goal of preventive cardiology is to maintain your blood vessels and heart healthy early on. Your health and wellbeing may be significantly impacted by this preventive medical practise. In preventive cardiology, risk management is included. People who should think about preventive cardiology include those who have a family history of cardiovascular illness, including heart attacks, heart failure, peripheral artery disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.  Existing health issues include obesity, high lipid or cholesterol levels, diabetes, high blood pressure, or any of these, or do not exercise at all.  Poor lifestyle choices include habitually smoking, drinking alcohol, and eating a diet heavy in saturated fat. People who have erratic sleeping patterns may want to consult a preventive cardiologist. Preventive cardiology includes

  • Risk management
  • Medical management
  • Lifestyle management


Cardiac imaging is the term used to describe non-invasive (i.e., not requiring the insertion of instruments into the body) imaging techniques used to examine the heart, such as a sonogram, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT), and Nuclear Medicine (NM) imaging techniques such as PET and SPECT.

These cardiac procedures are also known as

Image Analysis: Image analysis entails breaking down an image into its basic elements and removing pertinent information. Finding shapes, eliminating noise, counting objects, spotting edges, and generating statistics for texture classification or image quality are just a few of the activities involved in image processing. Here are some techniques for image processing:

  • Analogue image processing
  • Digital image processing


Arteriosclerosis is defined as the hypertrophy, toughening, and loss of flexibility of the artery walls caused by fatty clots (plaque) and cholesterol develop inside the artery walls, preventing blood from flowing through it in the amount required. This condition causes insufficient blood flow to the heart, central nervous system, kidney, liver, and all organs throughout the body, resulting in several types of cardiovascular disease or, in severe cases, organ damage or death. Age, gender, genetic inheritance, elevated blood pressure, smoking and alcohol use, lack of physical activity, unhealthy lifestyle, adiposity, depression, and other risk factors all contribute to the development of this disease.

Symptoms and signs include:

  • sudden weakness
  • facial or lower limb numbness
  • confusion
  • difficulty understanding speech
  • Heart attack
  • Myocardial Ischemia including chest pain.

Thrombosis: It is a medical condition caused by the development or appearance of a blood clot in a blood vessel. In a deep venous thrombosis or a coronary thrombosis (artery), the vessel could be any vein or artery. The clot is known as a thrombus. It is a very serious medical condition in which one or more clots form within the blood vessels, obstructing blood flow or breaking free and moving to another part of your body. If a moving clot becomes lodged in a vital area, it can lead to fatal conditions such as heart attack and stroke.

Types of Thrombosis
A) Arterial thrombosis: This type of thrombosis occurs in the arteries, which are blood vessels that transport heart pumps blood to the rest of your body. The much more common source of strokes and heart attacks is arterial thrombosis.
B) Veinous thrombosis: This is thrombosis that occurs in blood vessels, which seem to be vessels that carry blood from your body back to your heart. One of most common cause of collapsed lung is venous thrombosis (blood clot in your lung).

Vascular Biology: Vascular biology is the science of the genetics of the constitutive cells of the vascular wall, which encompasses the heart and blood vessels. The blood vessels are made up of arteries that carry blood from the heart to the entire body as well as veins that return blood across all parts of your body to your heart, so they play an important role in blood regulation throughout the body.

Case report in Cardiology refers to case documentation and case series that include preeclampsia, arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, diverticular disease, peripheral arterial disease, congenital heart defects, and cardiomyopathy, among other conditions. A case report in medicine is defined as a thorough report of an individual clinical condition, signs, diagnosis, therapeutic interventions, and follow-up, which may include a demographic makeup of the patient, characterise an unusual occurrence, or include an evaluation of other reported patients diagnosed. Experts provide case reports in cardiology that include complete and accurate notes or information on the therapies in order to give concepts for indicators of effectiveness, adverse events, and cost.

Cerebral Blood FlowIt is defined as the quantity of blood flowing per unit weight per unit time in cerebral cortex and is usually expressed in millilitres of blood. CBF is regulated by four major mechanisms: metabolic control (or metabolic autoregulation, pressure autoregulation, and so on. Neural control, chemical control (via arterial pCO2 and pO2). Among the methods used to determine CBF in human participants are:

  • Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), 
  • Positron emission tomography (PET),
  • MRI with contrast agents,
  • Arterial spin labelling (ASL) MRI.

Metabolism: Metabolism is used to express all chemical reactions included in continuing the living state of the cells and the organism. Metabolism can be efficiently divided into two categories: Catabolism and Anabolism. Catabolism refers to the breakdown of molecules to obtain energy and Anabolism refers to the synthesis of all compounds needed by the cells.

Stem Cell Research: It is the research in the medical field which is related to the involvement of the properties of stem cells and their potential utilization in medicine. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells in an easy language we can say that they are blank cells that can only serve a specific purpose in a particular organ. For example, red blood cells are specifically designed to carry oxygen through the blood. This means they’re capable of developing into cells that serve numerous functions in different parts of the body. Most cells in the body are differentiated cells. They can divide and make an indefinite number of copies of themselves Since stem cells have the ability to turn into various other types of cells, scientists believe that they can be useful for treating and understanding diseases.

According to the research, stem cells can be used to:

  • grow new cells in a laboratory to replace damaged organs or tissues
  • correct parts of organs that don’t work properly
  • research causes of genetic defects in cells
  • research how diseases occur or why certain cells develop into cancer cells
  • test new drugs for safety and effectiveness

Regeneration on Cardiology: Cardiac regeneration is a broad attempt to repair irreversibly damaged heart tissue using cutting-edge science, including progenitor cells and cell-free counselling. Many instruments have been created to use the body's natural capacity to regenerate to substitute injured healthy tissue and cognitive impairment heart function.

Resuscitation is a life-saving procedure performed in an emergency when the heart system fails. This is the process of correcting symptoms (such as a lack of breathing as well as heartbeat) in a critically ill patient. It is an important component of critical care medicine, trauma surgical procedures, and emergency medicine. Endotracheal intubation and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation are two well-known examples. Instantaneous CPR can either double or triple a person's chances of survival following a cardiogenic shock.

The succeeding resuscitation methods are mentioned: 

  • High-Frequency Chest Compressions.
  • Open-Chest CPR.
  • Interposed Abdominal Compression-CPR
  • “Cough” CPR
  • Prone CPR
  • Precordial Thump
  • Percussion Pacing

Emergency infusionsThe process of directly injecting medicines into the bone marrow establishes a non-collapsible point of entry into the institutional venous system. When injectable access is not available, this technique allows fluids and medication to be administered. It is also used extensively in the hospital's intensive care unit and during a emergency.

It is the serious player It is a surgical procedure in which a flawed or dented heart is supplanted by a healthy and nutritious donor heart that has recently died. If a patient has a heart problem and is unable to recover from treatment, heart transplant procedures are performed.


  • Denial of the patient's heart.
  • Primary graft inability
  • Issue if the arteries are not removed.
  • Medication side impacts
  • Cancer.

Infection control by injecting medicines straight into the bone marrow, creating a pro point of entry into the institutional venous system. Once intravenous entrance is not available, this technique is used to enable fluids and medication. It is also a crucial component of the hospital's intensive care unit when there is an emergency.

Stroke Interventions:
It is observed when the brain cells or tissues did not get the required amount of oxygen and nutrients. If the blood vessels which carry blood to the brain have the formation of plaque or rupture and bleed, or when there is a blockage in the blood supply to the brain leads to the interventions of stroke. Symptoms include Paralysis, confusion trouble speaking and understanding, vision problems, sudden behavioral change, Seizures, Nausea or vomiting, etc.

There are 3 primary types of strokes
 1. Transient Ischemic attacks (TIA): This involves blood clot that typically reverses on their own.
 2. Ischemic Stroke: This includes the blockage in the artery due to the formation of blood clots or plaque.
 3. Hemorrhagic Stroke: This caused due to either bursting or leaking blood vessel that seeps into the brain.

Carotid Stenting It is also known as Carotid Stenting because it involves exposing the carotid artery and removing plaque with a thin metal tube (stent) implanted into the vessel to act as a scaffold that works to help to widen the blocked artery and prevent it from narrowing again.

Thoracic surgery:
It involves the treatment of the organs that are present in the thoracic cavity (Chest Area) which is the heart, lungs, and esophagus. This surgery is mostly carried out for the treatment of Chest wall tumors, end-stage lung disease, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis. Removal of the lung affected by cancer, lung transplant, heart transplant, and coronary artery bypass surgery also comes under thoracic surgery.

Cardiovascular Surgery:
It treats the organs found in the chest cavity (Chest Area), which include the heart, lungs, and esophagus. This surgery is usually performed to treat chest wall tumors, end-stage lung problems, respiratory problems, and pulmonary fibrosis.

Thoracic surgery also includes lung cancer removal, heart bypass, and coronary artery bypass surgery. 

  • Open-heart surgery
  •  Modern beating-heart surgery
  •  Heart transplant
  •  Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)
  •  Minimally invasive surgery

The microcirculation is a systemic circulation vascular channel composed of micro vessels with internal diameter of 20 m. These micro-vessels are made up of afferent arteriole, venules, capillaries, and with their cellular constituents. The microcirculation is the final destination of the cardiovascular system and is ultimately responsible for oxygen diffusion out from capillaries' red blood cells (RBC) to the parenchymal cells, where oxygen is supplied to meet the energy requirements of the tissue cells in support of their proper function and aid in having conducted activities involving tissue nourishment and perfusion.

Inflammation is defined as a series of localised reactions that occur in the affected area, such as redness, swelling, stiffness, and a rise in temperature, which is the result of a local defence mechanism designed to avoid invaders or foreign pathogens from attempting to fight by circulating Neutrophils and leukocytes (WBCs), increasing blood flow, and so on. There are two types of inflammation: acute and chronic. Acute inflammation includes sore throat, swelling, illness, physical trauma, and other signs that resolve within a few hours, however persistent inflammation can lead to cancer, arthritis, asthma, Crohn's disease, and some other diseases. Certain inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory arthritis and psoriasis, could be of hereditary origin, culminating in autoimmune inflammatory disorders. Inflammatory mediators are managed via anti-inflammatory treatment. Steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications may be used in anti-inflammatory drugs (Aspirin, Ibuprofen, diclofenac).

Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation: 
Rehabilitation is a comprehensive therapeutic and instructional programme created for individuals suffering from cardiopulmonary illnesses or following post-cardiac surgery, with the goal of restoring heart health and job capacity while minimizing impairment impact. The other goals are to manage the symptoms and improve overall quality of life.

Prevention: There are numerous methods for preventing heart and lung problems. However, high blood pressure/hypertension is one of the key risk factors for cardiac disorders.

The following are some preventive measures:

  • regulating blood pressure
  • by controlling triglycerides and cholesterol - by maintaining a healthy weight
  • a nutritious diet - daily exercise
  • No smoking is permitted.
  • control diabetes
  • get adequate sleep 

Certain investigations have observed an ageing process increases in left ventricular mass, myocardial calcification, calcium proceedings in valvular structures, vascular system, calcification, and systemic inflammation as the patient's age progresses. Certain diseases are virtually exclusively found in older persons with comorbidities; thus, the presence of such large physiologic variations highlighted the need for a specialized branch of cardiologist for proper treatment and management of the condition.

Interventional Cardiology:
It is a non-surgical therapy that uses a catheter to repair damaged or damaged vessels, artery, or other impacted sections of the heart structure (a small and flexible tube). This approach prevents scarring, pain, and a lengthy post-operative recovery period. Interventional cardiology procedures include angioplasty and valve replacement. 

Interventional Radiology:
It is a method or procedure of diagnosis and treatment in which various small tools are inserted with minimal invasion by using medical imaging guidance such as Ultrasound, X-ray fluoroscopy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

Cardiovascular engineering is an area of computation medical technology that focuses on the study of cardiovascular illnesses and disorders, including basic science and experimental to clinical applications, and spans the range from the molecular to the whole body

Cardiovascular Technology: It refers to the technologies that are used to help and diagnose conditions associated with cardiovascular disease and diseases. These technologies are also utilized to help physicians diagnose and treat cardiac (heart) and peripheral vascular disorders (blood vessel), as well as during open-heart surgeries and pacemaker insertion surgeries.

It is integrated research into the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The Strategic Plan’s clinical and translational research goals emphasize the transmission of knowledge between basic and clinical research so that findings in one arena rapidly inform and stimulate research in the cardiovascular field.

Clinical and experimental cardiology is a scientific discipline concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease. It entails the research and development of new cardiac findings. It includes the clinical state of connected issues, such as their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and cure.

Nephrocardiology sometimes also called cardio nephrology, the study deals with cardiorenal syndromes and cardiac complications. It is a subspecialty that addresses the interaction and mechanisms that are not well addressed in either of the earlier specialties. Patients with cardiovascular disease have one or more nephrology-related conditions, which may be undiagnosed. These comorbidities require further study with respect to pathophysiology, their diagnosis, prognosis, evaluation, Prevention, therapy, adverse reactions, and the systemic diseases that involve both nephrology-related conditions and cardiovascular diseases.


Genetics of heart diseases is also called Inherited Cardiac Conditions which is caused due to one or more abnormalities in the genome. When the genetic disorder of the heart is inherited from one or both parents, it is also classified as hereditary heart disease. Genetic heart disorders can be present before birth, and might some of them produce birth defects, but birth defects can also be developmental rather than hereditary. If any person has any family history of heart disease are very prone and at higher risk for cardiac diseases.

Vascular diseases: These are the conditions that have an impact on the circulatory system. It is a disorder in which the blood arteries that carry oxygen and nutrients throughout the body are harmed due to the accumulation of plaque inside the vessels, resulting in the development of numerous vascular conditions.

Vascular diseases are classified as follows:

  • Carotid Artery Disease/Carotid Artery Stenosis.
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis.
  • Atherosclerosis.
  • Chronic Venous Insufficiency.
  • Intermittent Claudication
  • Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm   

Current cardiology research includes a diverse range of contributions ranging from Original Research to Review Articles; Research Topics bring together the most significant scholars, the most recent key findings, and historical accomplishments in the cardiac research field.

Advances in Cardiology: 
Changes in technology and software released recently in cardiology may present a potential for improvement in the accuracy of SPECT MPI while also allowing for shorter, more pleasant imaging for the patient. With the increased use of coronary computed tomography angiography, there is a greater emphasis on the amount of radiation received by the patient with SPECT MPI as well as coronary computed tomography angiography treatments.

Heart disease is a term used to describe a range of conditions that affect the heart. These conditions include coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and congenital heart defects.

Coronary artery disease occurs when plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart, narrowing the arteries and restricting blood flow. Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood effectively. Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms, while congenital heart defects are present at birth.

Treatment for heart disease may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a heart-healthy diet, and exercising regularly. Medications such as blood thinners, cholesterol-lowering drugs, and blood pressure medications may also be prescribed. In some cases, surgery may be necessary, such as coronary artery bypass surgery or valve replacement surgery. Other treatments may include angioplasty and stenting, implantable devices like pacemakers, or heart transplant for end-stage heart failure.


  • Track 35-1Cardiovascular Diabetology
  • Track 35-2Cardiac Anesthesiology
  • Track 35-3Sports and Exercise Cardiology
  • Track 35-4Cardiovascular Interventions
  • Track 35-5Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
  • Track 35-6Endocrinology and cardiology